Post-translational modifications of histones

Post-translational modifications (PTM) of histones are crucial step in the regulation of a gene expression. N-terminal tails of histones are the most accessible regions for various modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination etc. by the 'writers'. PTMs are known to create sites for the recruitment of specific factors or modify existing sites to affect the gene expression. Also, PTMs can recruit enzymes that can ‘write’ or ‘erase’ modifications. These PTMs change the overall charge on basic histone proteins and thereby interfere with the histone-DNA interaction and thereby altering nucleosome stability.

Types of PTMs Arginine methylation, Lysine acetylation, Lysine methylation, Lysine ubiquitination, Serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation