Histone serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation

Another important modification that occurs on histones is phosphorylation (ph) that is mediated by different 'Kinases' . There are 2 enzyme categories that catalyse this modification separately on Serine/Threonine and on Tyrosine residues using ATP as the donor. Phosphate groups have an intrinsic charge and hence when attached to Ser/Thr/Tyr, it gives an overall negative charge to these residue. This might further interfere with the histone-DNA charge interaction and may have consequences on nucleosome stability. Each phosphate group adds approx ~95 Da to the histone molecular weight.

One of the most essential modification since it guides many gene regulation events. Phosphorylation of histone H2AX is a universal and instantaneous cellular response to the DNA damage. It is all the more significant for recruitment of DNA repair machinery to the actual damage site. Histone phosphorylation participates in many cross talk events with other histone modifications, e.g. H3S28ph can demethylate and further acetylate neighbouring H3K27. Many of these phosphorylations are cell cycle dependent and can guide the progression from one phase to another.

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Sites of histone serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation
Site of modification Writers Erasers
H1T10ph Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta-
H2AS139ph Serine-protein kinase ATM, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 catalytic subunit, Protein phosphatase 1D, Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoform, Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoform
H2AS1ph Ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-5-
H2AY142ph Tyrosine-protein kinase BAZ1B Eyes absent homolog 1, Eyes absent homolog 2, Eyes absent homolog 3
H2AT120ph Mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase BUB1-
H2BS14ph Serine/threonine-protein kinase 4-
H3S10ph Ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-5, Serine/threonine-protein kinase 12, Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha, Serine/threonine-protein kinase tousled-like 1, Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2, Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 Dual specificity protein phosphatase 1
H3S28ph Ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-5, Serine/threonine-protein kinase 12, Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MLT, Ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-4-
H3S6ph Serine/threonine-protein kinase 12-
H3T11ph Serine/threonine-protein kinase N1, Death-associated protein kinase 3 Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-gamma catalytic subunit
H3T3ph Serine/threonine-protein kinase haspin-
H3T45ph Protein kinase C delta type-
H3T6ph Protein kinase C beta type-
H3Y41ph Tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2-