Histone lysine acetylation

Acetylation occurs exclusively on lysine residues of histone proteins. It is catalyzed by a special category of enzymes called the 'lysine acetyltransferases'. Acetylation causes neutralization of the positively charged lysine residues. Hampering the histone-DNA interaction increases the weight of histone protein by ~42 Da per acetyl moiety. Histone acetylation is predominantly associated with transcriptional activation.


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Sites of histone lysine acetylation
Site of modification Writers Erasers
H1K25ac- NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1
H2AK5ac Histone acetyltransferase KAT5, Histone acetyltransferase type B catalytic subunit-
H2AK9ac--
H2BK120ac--
H2BK12ac--
H2BK15ac--
H2BK16ac--
H2BK20ac--
H2BK46ac--
H2BK5ac--
H3K14ac Histone acetyltransferase KAT2A, Histone acetyltransferase MYST3, Bifunctional protein NCOAT, General transcription factor 3C polypeptide 4, Circadian locomoter output cycles protein kaput-
H3K18ac Histone acetyltransferase p300, CREB-binding protein, Elongator complex protein 3-
H3K23ac--
H3K27ac Histone acetyltransferase p300, CREB-binding protein-
H3K36ac--
H3K4ac- Histone deacetylase 3
H3K56ac Histone acetyltransferase p300, CREB-binding protein Histone deacetylase 1, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-6, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3, mitochondrial, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-2
H3K64ac--
H3K9ac Histone acetyltransferase KAT2A, Elongator complex protein 3 NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-6
H4K12ac Histone acetyltransferase KAT5, Histone acetyltransferase KAT2A, Histone acetyltransferase MYST2, Histone acetyltransferase type B catalytic subunit, Histone acetyltransferase p300, CREB-binding protein-
H4K16ac Histone acetyltransferase KAT2A, Probable histone acetyltransferase MYST1, Histone acetyltransferase p300, CREB-binding protein NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-2
H4K5ac Histone acetyltransferase KAT5, Histone acetyltransferase KAT2A, Histone acetyltransferase MYST2, Histone acetyltransferase type B catalytic subunit, Histone acetyltransferase p300, CREB-binding protein-
H4K8ac Histone acetyltransferase KAT5, Histone acetyltransferase KAT2A, Histone acetyltransferase MYST2, Histone acetyltransferase p300, Bifunctional protein NCOAT, CREB-binding protein-
H4K91ac Histone acetyltransferase KAT2A-